"The formation of ethnology (Völker-Beschreibung and Völkerkunde) took place in two stages: (1) as ethnography (Völker-Beschreibung), in the work of German explorers in Siberia (Messerschmidt, Müller, Gmelin, Steller, Fischer) during the first half of the eighteenth century; (2) as ethnology (Völkerkunde), in the work of German-speaking historians (Schöpperlin, Thilo, Schlözer, Gatterer, Kollár) during the second half of the eighteenth century.".
Ethnography can be simply defined as "…the observation, description, depiction and/or representation of lived social experience.".
"Is a process of creating and representing knowledge (about society, culture and individuals) and involves a field-based study lengthy enough to surface people’s everyday norms and routines.".
"Ethnographer synthesizes disparate observations to create a holistic construct of 'culture' or 'society'. "According to Bromleyy was supposed to study 'similarity and differences between peoples-etnoses and the changes of their characteristics in time, i.e. ethnic processes". Ethnography aims to describe life as it is lived and experienced, by a people. Anthropology, by contrast, is an inquiry into the conditions and possibilities of human life.
Visual ethnography study people in wide range of settings, research life and human behavior to convey the inner life and the diverse social enclaves and personal circumstances of society. Combining visual media and Ethnographic research provide purposeful presentations of meaning relating to social occurrences.
Research ethics in ethnography. "These dual concerns with outcomes and rights
are often translated by ethicists into sets of principles to guide research practice. The following list, from Beauchamp et al. (1982: 18–19), is typical: Non-maleficence: that researchers should avoid harming participants. Beneficence: that research on human subjects should produce some positive and identifiable benefit rather than simply be carried out for its own sake. Autonomy or self-determination: that the values and
decisions of research participants should be respected. Justice: that people who are equal in relevant respects should be treated equally.".
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